The Russian Tortoise 
Agrionemys horsfieldii ( Testudo horsfieldii)  

Russian Tortoise Diet

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I have seen many recommendations for diets...Some good ...Some bad. Russian Tortoises are grazers and enjoy broad leaf plants. The best diet is a variety of weeds (leaves and flowers). Dandelion is a favorite. However for many , the ideal diet is just not available. So what are the alternatives that can keep our tortoises healthy and happy?

There is a real concern among tortoise lovers about abnormal growth and poor health from improper diets. There are also certain "anti-nutrients" in plants that if given in sufficient quantities , have a negative impact on the health of or animals. These include oxalic acid, phytic acid, goitrogens, purines and tannins. More on these later. The true key to a healthy diet is variety.
 

Russian Tortoises are "programmed" to eat allot in a short period of time. In the wild they are active only a few months of the year. When they come out of hibernation they feed voraciously in preparation for aestivation (some refer to this as summer hibernation though its not really hibernation, but more like a long siesta) .

In captivity they are active most the year and can easily over eat. Also if kept in an indoor pen they get less exercise than in the wild. These 2 factors can lead to rapid growth and a shortened life span. For this reason their diet should be restricted.

When kept outdoors they can be allowed to graze freely and fed daily small amounts of supplemental food. I am fortunate in that I have enough weeds and flowers growing all summer that I rarely need to feed anything else. I have divided my pen in thirds and keep 1/3 growing a fresh crop of weeds at all times.

Indoors, they receive far less exercise and tend to rely on grocery store green. I prefer to feed them as much as they will eat in twenty minutes....daily. I have also fed them as much as they would eat in an hour... every other day. Both methods work.

Also if you chop up hay (timothy, orchard, Bermuda ...etc) and mix it with the greens you can feed larger volumes. I also leave fresh hay in the pens at all times.


GREENS
Most grocery stores have a decent selection of greens that Russians readily eat. Ideally the greens should be organic and pesticide free. However this is the real world and not all tortoise keepers have access to "ideal" food. So, I have this section as a starting point for a varied diet. The following greens are easily found in my local stores:

Red and green leaf lettuce
Endive
Escarole
Radicchio
Turnip greens
Mustard greens
Collards
Spring Mix (mixed salad greens)
cabbage
opuntia cactus pads and fruit (prickly pear)


With the above veggies one can develop a good diet. Once again (and I can't stress this enough) variety is the key!
Don't feed the same food day in and day out. Mix varieties and choose a different green as the basis every few days.

OTHER GOOD CHOICES
Some other favorites of my tortoises that are available:
Hibiscus (flowers and leaves)
Hosta
Sedum
Mulberry leaves
Hen and Chicks
Ice Plants
Prickly pear flowers, fruit and pads (burn the spines off)
Dandelion
Plantain (not the banana type fruit....the weed plantago major)
Mallow (flowers and leaves)
Henbit
Rose (flowers and leaves....make sure no
systemic pesticides were used)
Chrysanthemum flowers
Cornflowers
Plagiobothrys ssp
Forsythia (flowers and leaves)
Dayflower  Commelina diffusa(flowers and leaves)
Californian Poppy   escholzia

Make sure all are pesticide and herbicide free.

AVOID
The following food items should be avoided for a variety of reasons. there are many books and groups that go into great detail...so I won't repeat them here. At the end of the page are a few links).
All fruit (although fruit is often recommended, its sugar content can lead
to parasite blooms....just not worth it)
Iceberg lettuce
Bok Choy
Root crops such as potatoes and turnips
All grains (including bread, pasta etc)
Dog and cat food
Meat
All human food except what's been listed as "good"
Any plants listed as toxic
http://russiantortoise.org/toxic-plants.htm
Pellet type foods
 An often overlooked factor of pyramiding is grain based diets. These are the pellet food that some claim to be essential to health. They typically contain soy, wheat and or rice. These are high in omega 6 fatty acids which has a negative effect on health. They also have an acidifying effect which causes a leaching of bone. They are high in phytate which binds calcium and other minerals. They also have an unfavorable ca/ph ratio and a low ca/mg ratio which has a negative impact on calcium metabolism. Grains alter Vit D metabolism. Diets high in grains can have a negative impact on bone growth in spite of adequate exposure to sunshine. (http://www.sawellnesscenter.com//nutrition/Diet/Cereal%20article-1.pdf)

ANTI-NUTRIENTS
A number of food items contain chemicals that interfere with a tortoises ability to absorb nutrients from food. Although most food items have some of these...a varied diet can minimize the harmful effects.
(more info can be found at Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database)
Oxalic Acid:
This is a naturally occurring element in many plants and imparts a bitter taste in greens such as mustard greens. This substance binds minerals...
the most important being calcium. It binds with minerals which must be eliminated through the kidneys. In large amounts (or in small quantities
with improper hydration) can lead to kidney stones and kidney damage. Avoid  rhubarb and beet greens....limit spinach,
Phytic Acid: This is found in high concentration is peas, beans and cereals. This chemical also binds minerals as well as proteins.
Tannins:
Although tannins are beneficial for the most part, in large quantities (as with all anti-nutrients) they bind protein and interfere with digestion.
Purines:
Purines are well known in humans as being a contributing factor in gout. Russian tortoises fed large amounts can develop kidney disease.
Goitrogens:
This compound is implicated in the development of enlarged thyroid glands (Goiters). They interfere with the uptake of iodine.
 

SUPPLEMENTS

Powdered calcium is often given as a supplement. However recent research shows that this method of supplementation can lead to calcification of soft tissue and kidney stones.  A far better method of providing calcium is to keep cuttlebone available at all times and feed hi calcium greens.

Another great supplement is TNT from Carolina Pet Supply. It has powdered hibiscus flowers (Roselle), dandelion, plantain, chickweed etc. and . All are a natural source of vitamins and minerals.

Also of use are probiotics. Most of our animals come to us with abundance of parasites and disturbed gut flora (the good bacteria that live in the intestines). Supplementing with probiotics goes a long way to restoring normal gut function. Nutribac  is one of the best probiotics formulated for reptiles.



WATER

Water is very important for all animals. Russian tortoise are no exception to the rule. Being an arid species , much of the water can be extracted from their food. However they do need a regular source. I keep a shallow bowel of water in the pens. Indoors I prefer to soak them for 20 minutes in chin deep "baby warm" water every 2-3 days. This serves 2 purposes. It allows me to inspect them frequently and (since they usually empty their bowels and bladders while soaking) it keeps the cages much cleaner.


Here are some good links:

USDA NUTRIENT DATA LABORATORY

Oxalic Acid Content of Selected Vegetables

Wild Edible Plant Nutrition

Chemical Composition of Plants

Plants For A Future - Database Search

CalFlora Database

California Wildflowers

University of California weeds

WeedAlert.com

Medicinal Plants

USDA Poisonous Plants

Toxic and Poisonous Plants and Flowers

This Canadian site list poisonous and problem plants. Click on the Latin name for a description.

More poisonous plants

For help with growing plants for your tortoise, join The Veggie Patch


Joe Heinen BS, DC, FIAMA, Dipl. Ac. (IAMA)
Copyright 2000-2009 http://russiantortoise.org, http://www.russiantortoise.net

As an addendum. Many have asked me what a tortoise looks like that wasn't properly fed. Here is a link to a recent rescue by Marty La Prees INdiana TURTLE CARE, Inc.


Click here to see photos of shell deformities ..... really sad....but now she has a great home!


 

 

 

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